Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
About This Catalog
About the University
Undergraduate Education in Newark
College of Nursing
Liberal Arts Colleges
Admission to the Liberal Arts Colleges
Newark College of Arts and Sciences
University College–Newark
Academic Programs and Courses
Availablity of Courses, Majors, and Minor Programs
Course Notation Information
Academic Foundations 003
African-American and African Studies 014
Allied Health Technologies 045
American Studies 050
Ancient and Medieval Civilizations 060
Anthropology 070
Arabic 074
Archaeology 075
Art (Art 080, B.F.A. Visual Arts 081, Art History 082, Arts Management 084)
Biological Sciences
Major Requirements for Bachelor of Arts in Biology
Major Requirements for the Bachelor of Science in Biology
Minor in Biology
Writing Intensive Courses
Teacher Certification
Botany (B.A. only)
Major Requirements
Minor in Botany
Zoology (B.A. only)
Major Requirements
Minor in Zoology
Central and Eastern European Studies (CEES) 149
Chemistry 160
Clinical Laboratory Sciences 191
Computer Science 198
Criminal Justice 202
Earth and Environmental Sciences (Geology 460)
Economics 220
Urban Education 300
English (350 and 352)
Environmental Sciences 375
French 420
Geoscience Engineering 465
Greek 490
Hebraic Studies 500
History (History 510, American 512)
Honors 525
Human-Computer Interaction 531
International Affairs
Italian 560
Journalism and Media Studies 570
Korean 574
Latin 580
Legal Studies
Linguistics 615
Mathematics (Mathematics 640, Statistics 960)
Medical Technology 660
Music (Music 700, Music Performance 701)
Philosophy 730
Physics 750
Political Science 790
Portuguese and Lusophone World Studies 810
Psychology 830
Puerto Rican Studies 836
Religious Studies 840
Slavic 861
Social Work 910
Sociology 920
Spanish 940
Speech 950
Theater Arts, Television and Media Arts (Theater Arts 965, Speech 950)
Urban Studies 975
Women's Studies 988
Administration and Faculty
Consortium with New Jersey Institute of Technology
Rutgers Business School: Undergraduate-Newark
General Information
Camden Newark New Brunswick/Piscataway
  Newark Undergraduate Catalog 2006-2008 Liberal Arts Colleges Academic Programs and Courses Biological Sciences Courses  


21:120:101-102General Biology (4,4) Lectures, laboratories, and small group discussions on major biological principles and their relevance to humans. Topics in 101 include the anatomy, physiology, and ecology of animals and plants. Topics in 102 include cell biology, genetics, and evolution. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. self-paced, averaging 3 hrs. per week.
62:120:104Human Health and Disease (3) Provides an introduction to the functions of the healthy human body and the mechanisms and consequences of various pathologic conditions. Intended for students with no previous college biology or chemistry. May not be used for credit toward biology, botany, or zoology majors or minors.
21&62:120:109Basic Plant Science (3) Introduction to basic botany and the applied plant sciences; plant biology with applications to ecology and conservation, food and drug problems, horticulture, and agriculture; demonstrations in greenhouses and campus plantings. Not open to majors or to those who have taken or plan to take 21:120:101-102.
21&62:120:110Basic Plant Science Laboratory (1) Laboratory exercises in the areas covered in the description of 21&62:120:109. Not open to majors or to those who have taken or plan to take 21:120:101-102. May be taken with 21&62:120:109 to fulfill the laboratory science requirement when taken with 21&62:120:206, 207.
62:120:203Plant Biology (3) An evolutionary survey of the plant kingdom, with emphasis on the flowering plants, their structure, and major life processes. May not be used for credit toward biology, botany, or zoology majors or minors.
21&62:120:205Environmental Issues (3) Basic ecological principles; the human population and attempts to control it; human impact on the environment--air and water pollution, land use and misuse, conservation of resources. May not be used for credit toward the biology, botany, or zoology major or minor.
21&62:120:206General Horticulture (3) Basic principles of horticultural science; environmental control of plant growth; theories and methods of plant propagation and cultivation; introduction to ornamental plants. May not be used for credit toward biology, botany, or zoology major or minor.
21&62:120:207Horticulture Laboratory (1) Practical experience in horticulture; emphasis on plant growth, propagation and maintenance in laboratory greenhouse, experimental gardens, and growth chambers. Pre- or corequisite: 21&62:120:206. May not be used for credit toward biology, botany, or zoology major. May be taken with 21&62:120:206 to satisfy laboratory science requirement in conjunction with 21&62:120:109,110.
21&62:120:208Human Sexuality (3) Reproductive biology, including anatomy and development of sexual structures, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and childbirth; self-examination, contraception and abortion, and sexually transmitted diseases; role of emotions, communication skills, and values in sexuality; diversity of sexual behavior and legal and commercial aspects of sexuality. Emphasis is on critical thinking throughout. May not be used for credit toward the biology, botany, or zoology major or minor.
21:120:211Plant Kingdom (4) A survey of the major groups in the plant kingdom; the morphology, reproduction, and evolution of plants with emphasis on their role in nature and importance to man. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Pre- or corequisites: 21:120:101-102 or permission of instructor.
21:120:230Biology of Seed Plants (4) The morphology, physiology, and reproduction of flowering plants, plant structures, functions, and products essential to human life; the cultural and applied aspects of plant science. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Pre- or corequisites: 21:120:101-102 or permission of instructor.
21:120:235Microbiology (3) Fundamentals of microbiology, including the distinguishing characteristics of the various groups of microbial cells; microbial control, including physical and chemical agents and chemotherapeutic agents; applications in personal and public health and in industry; mechanisms of disease production and host resistance; prevention and control of disease. Lec. 2 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:241-242 or equivalent. May not be used for credit toward biology, botany, or zoology major or minor.
21:120:237Environmental Microbiology (4) Discussion will be on prokaryotes and their environmental impacts; cell biology, metabolism, physiology, and genetics; selected environments. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. May not be used for credit toward the biology, botany, or zoology major or minor. Priority to students in the environmental science major and to NJIT engineering major.
21:120:240Human Physiology (3)

Study of the biological function and regulation of the major organ systems of the human body, with emphasis on homeostasis and integration as it applies to human health and disease.

Lec. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:101-102, 21:160:115-116. May not be used for credit toward the biology, botany, or zoology major or minor.
21:120:241-242Anatomy and Physiology (4,4) Examination of integrated structure and function of the human body from the aspect of levels of organization. Emphasis is on homeostatic mechanisms. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. May not be used for credit toward the biology, botany, or zoology major. Intended for students with career goals in allied health sciences. Either course may be taken first.
21:120:301Foundations of Biology: Cell and Molecular Biology (4) Lectures, discussions, and laboratory exercises in cell structure, thermodynamics, membrane biology, energy utilization and transfer, and nucleic acid structure and function, transcription, translation, and genetic regulation. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:101-102 or placement exam and 21:160:115.
21:120:311Taxonomy of Vascular Plants (4) The principles of plant systematics, especially as applied to vascular plants. The identification, classification, and evolutionary relationship of major plant groups with emphasis on the local flora with extensive field trips. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. and field trips 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:211 or 230 or permission of instructor.
21:120:320Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates (4) Phylogeny of gross structure and structural integration in the vertebrates; laboratory work on amphioxus, lamprey, dogfish, and cat. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Pre- or corequisites: 21:120:101-102.
21:120:322Evolution (3) Principles and mechanisms of evolution and history of evolutionary theory; mechanisms of animal speciation and adaptive radiation; the role of population and genetics in understanding microevolution. Prerequisite: 21:120:352.
21:120:325Animal Parasites (3) The parasitic protozoa, flatworms, roundworms, and arthropods in relation to their hosts. Pre- or corequisites: 21:120:301 plus one advanced course in zoology.
21:120:326Laboratory Exercises in Parasitology (1) Visualization, preparation, and identification of parasitic animals (protozoa, flatworms, roundworms, and arthropods) and host-parasite interactions. Lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:301 plus one advanced course in zoology. Corequisite: 21:120:325.
21:120:327Biology of Invertebrates (4) Review of the major animal phyla; emphasis throughout on critical thinking, reasoning about the interrelationships of structure, function, and behavior in their ecological and evolutionary contexts. Laboratory work emphasizes living animals; supplemented by fieldwork. One field trip required. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120: 101-102.
21:120:328Ornithology (3) A survey of birds and their biology. Includes such topics as the diversity of birds and how they live; avian evolution; classification; structure and physiology; embryology and development; flight; migration and navigation; breeding biology; social organization and communication; instinct, learning, and intelligence; birds and people. Lectures supplemented by films and optional visits to museums and a field trip. Lec. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:101-102.
21:120:330Plant Physiology (4) Growth and metabolism of plants; water relations, photosynthesis, inorganic nutrition, metabolism of organic materials, and plant growth regulators. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:301 or permission of instructor.
21:120:335General Microbiology (4) Biology of prokaryotic organisms: their taxonomy, physiology, metabolism, and significance in nature. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:301 and 21&62:160:331.
21:120:340Mammalian Physiology (4) The physiology of the human as a mammal. Function and homeostatic regulation of neuromuscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, digestive, and excretory systems. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:301.
21:120:342Developmental Biology (3) Descriptive and experimental approaches to molecular, cellular, and organismal changes during development; mechanisms of cell differentiation, organogenesis, morphogenesis, and pattern formation. Lec. 3 hrs, Prerequisite: 21:120:301. Recommended: 21:120:320.
21:120:343Laboratory Exercises in Developmental Biology (1)

Study of the biochemical, histochemical, and molecular biology techniques employed in studying embryonic development using various model systems.

Lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:301. Corequisite: 21:120:34
21:120:346Neurobiology (3) Introduction to neurobiology, emphasizing cellular, developmental, and physiological aspects. Course begins with cellular properties of neurons and synaptic communication and aims to introduce topics in the organization, function, development, and disorders of neural systems. Lec. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:301.
21:120:352Genetics (3) The basic principles and mechanisms of genetics and their application to current problems. Prerequisites: 21:120:101-102.
21:120:355Cell Biology (3) Emphasis on the cell as the structural and functional unit of life; recent advances in molecular biology are integrated with recent knowledge of the ultrastructure and function of cells; includes features of prokaryotes and eukaryotes of plants and animals and an introduction to viruses. Prerequisites: 21:120:301 and 21&62:160:115-116. One termof organic chemistry recommended.
21:120:356Molecular Biology (3) The molecular basis of gene regulation in eukaryotic cells, includingDNA technology, chromosome structure, gene organization and expression. Prerequisite: 21:120:301.
21:120:358Microanatomy of Cells and Tissues (4) Structure and function of cells, organelles, tissues, and organs. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:301. Open to juniors and seniors only.
21:120:360Biochemistry (3) The chemistry and metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other biologically important compounds. Prerequisites: 21:120:301; 21&62:160:335. Corequisite: 21&62:160:336.
21:120:370Plant Ecology (3) Study of plants in relation to their environment; emphasis on local plant communities, modern methods of analysis, and applications to forestry and conservation. Prerequisites: 21:120:101-102.
21:120:371Field Studies in Plant Ecology (3) Modern and classical methods are employed in the study of plant communities and plant geography across the region. Prerequisite: 21:120:370 or permission of instructor.
21:120:380Animal Ecology (3) The principles of ecology, with emphasis on vertebrate animals; factors affecting their distribution and abundance. Pre- or corequisites: 21:120:101-102.
21:120:381Field Studies in Animal Ecology (3) Basic field techniques for the study of animals in their natural habitats; principles of animal ecology as demonstrated in field and laboratory work. Prerequisites: 21:120:380 or permission of instructor.
21:120:382Animal Behavior (3) From the genetic and neurobiological bases of behavior through animal communication and social systems; evolutionary processes that shape the behaviors of animals in their natural environment. Pre- or corequisites: 21:120:101-102.
21:120:403Biological Ultrastructure (3) For the student who has some histological background; makes the transition from light microscopy to electron microscopy; examines the ultrastructural appearance and functions of the subcellular organelles. Lec. 2 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:301 and permission of instructor.
21:120:404Light and Electron Microscopy (4) Processing of pieces of tissue through to finished light microscope slides and electron micrographs; the techniques involved in producing micrographs; a paper interpreting content of the micrographs required. Lec. 2 hrs., lab. 6 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:403.
21:120:413Mycology (4) Morphology, physiology, and reproduction of the fungi; emphasis given to cytomorphology, evolution of the principal families of the fungi, and the important relationships between fungi and other organisms, including man. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:301 or permission of instructor.
21:120:414Phycology (4) Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 62:120:211.
21:120:415Paleobotany (4) Survey of evolutionary trends in the plant kingdom; comparative study of the morphology, anatomy, and reproduction of fossil plants and their survivors, with emphasis on the vascular plants. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 62:120:211 or 21:120:230, or permission of instructor.
21:120:422 Biological Invasions (3)

Biological invasions by non-native species have become one of the major environmental problems. Primarily addresses the ecological and evolutionary aspects of this ever-growing problem. After describing patterns of invasion and linking them into a scientific framework, applied aspects will be addressed focusing on aspects of societal concern and workable counterstrategies. The topic will be approached using lectures, student facilitated discussion and paper presentation, illustrative lab, and computer experiments.

Lec. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:101-102, undergraduate course in ecology or evolution.
21:120:430Plant Growth and Development (4) Study of the dynamics of growth and development of plants as influenced by physiological and environmental factors. Laboratory focuses on plant tissue culture and applications to biotechnology. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:230 and 330, or permission of instructor.
21:120:435Microbial Physiology and Metabolism (3) Biology of prokaryotic organisms. Emphasis on those physiological, biochemical, and ecological aspects that are unique to bacteria. Prerequisites: 21:120:335, 360.
21:120:443Immunology (3) The capability of the body to respond to disease organisms; the immune response, current theories of antibody formation, transplantation, hypersensitivity, and response to cancer viruses and carcinogens; basic immunologic techniques. Prerequisite: 21:120:301 or permission of instructor.
21:120:445Endocrinology (3) The structures and functions of the endocrine glands and their role in the integration of the organism. Prerequisites: 21:120:301, 21&62:160:113-114 and 115-116.
21:120:451Laboratory in Cellular and Molecular Biology: Cellular Biophysics (4) Laboratory intensive course with lectures and discussion covering the physical principles governing eukaryotic cell function. Emphasis placed on the electrical properties of excitable cells and model membrane systems. Introduction to the principles underlying light and electron microscopy. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Admission by permission of instructor only. Prerequisites: 21:120:330 or 355 or 356; 21:160:115,116; 21:750:203,204.
21:120:452Laboratory in Cellular and Molecular Biology: Molecular Biotechniques (4) Lecture and laboratory course on principles and techniques of molecular biotechnology. Emphasis on recent techniques in molecular biology. Laboratory exercises include isolation, cloning, and sequencing of genetic material; protein purification; gel electrophoresis of proteins and nucleic acids; DNA synthesis; RFLPs and PCR techniques; construction and screening of DNA and genomic libraries. Industrial applications of molecular biology presented. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Admission by permission of instructor only. Prerequisites: 21:120:301, 356.
21:120:455Molecular Cell Biology (3) Advanced analysis of cellular systems with emphasis on cytoplasmic structure and function. Lec. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:355,356. Recommended: 21:120:360.
21:120:456Virology (3) Structure and function of viruses; modes of infection, virus-host interaction, and viral reproduction. Prerequisite: 21:120:335 or permission of instructor.
21:120:470Field Ecology (3) Field-oriented study of plants and plant communities; field and laboratory work are combined to demonstrate and analyze plant communities and their abiotic environment; modern instruments and techniques used in a problem-solving approach. Prerequisites: 21:120:101-102, 21:120:370 or 380, and permission of instructor.
21:120:471Ecological Physiology (3) The physiological and ecological factors that permit and facilitate the adaptation of animal or plant populations to diverse environments. Prerequisite: 21:120:370 or 380.
21:120:472Environmental Assessment (3) Lectures, readings, fieldwork, practical demonstration, and evaluations used to study the science of environmental assessment and to explore regulatory frameworks in which the science may be applied to real-world situations (e.g., natural resource inventories, polluted soil and water, and wetlands). Prerequisite: 21:120:370 or permission of instructor.
21:120:473Ecology of Microorganisms (3) Lectures and problem sets on interactions between microorganisms and the environment, and their role in element cycling in pristine and contaminated terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Prerequisite: 21:120:335.
21:120:481Marine Biology (4) Basic ecology of the marine environment; primary producers, zooplankton, benthic ecology, human impact on the sea, including fisheries and pollution. Field trips to nearby salt marsh, mud flat, rocky shore, and sandy beach habitats, plus a shipboard experience. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120: 101-102. Recommended: 21:120:327, 380.
21:120:486Tropical Field Biology (2) An intensive two-week summer course in tropical biology given in Puerto Rico. Emphasis on principles of ecology and diversity of organisms. Extensive field trips to tropical rain forest, desert, mangrove swamp, Karst topography, coral reef, and commercial plantations. Prerequisite: Written permission of instructor. Enrollment limited to 12 students. Course is for two weeks at the University of Puerto Rico (Mayaguez). The course fee includes round-trip airfare, housing, local transportation, and all expenses except meals. Because vigorous outdoor activity is required, students must be in good physical condition.
21:120:487Systems Ecology: Ecosystems in the Landscape (3) Lectures and problem sets on ecological energetics, soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, effect of spatial pattern on ecological process, landscape ecology, and other broadscale approaches to ecology. Prerequisite: 21:120:370 or 380.
21:120:491,492Problems in Biology (BA,BA) Outstanding juniors and seniors may enroll in this course under the supervision of a qualified faculty member with written permission of the faculty member and the undergraduate coordinator. No more than 6 problems credits may be used toward the botany, biology, or zoology major.
21:120:493,494Seminar in Biology (1,1) Discussion of selected topics with emphasis on current research. Open to juniors and seniors with a cumulative grade-point average of at least 3.0 and with permission of instructor. No more than 2 credits may be used toward a major.
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