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  School of Criminal Justice 2021-2023 Academic Policies and Procedures Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Academic Integrity Policy Academic Integrity Violations: Types of Violations  

Academic Integrity Violations: Types of Violations

This section describes various ways in which the principles of academic integrity can be violated. Examples of each type of violation are provided in this policy. However, neither the types of violations nor the lists of examples are exhaustive.

Plagiarism is the use of another person's words, ideas, images, or results, no matter the form or media, without giving that person appropriate credit. To avoid plagiarism, a student must identify every direct quotation using quotation marks or appropriate indentation and cite both direct quotation and paraphrasing properly according to the accepted format for the particular discipline or as required by the instructor in a course. Some common examples of plagiarism are:
  • Copying word for word (i.e., quoting directly) from an oral, printed, or electronic source without proper attribution.
  • Paraphrasing without proper attribution, i.e., presenting in one's own words another person's written words or ideas as if they were one's own, regardless of the nature of the assignment.
  • Incorporating into one's work graphs, drawings, photographs, diagrams, tables, spreadsheets, computer programs, or other nontextual material from other sources, regardless of format, without proper attribution.
Cheating: Cheating is the use or possession of inappropriate or prohibited materials, information, sources, or aids in any academic exercise. Cheating also includes submitting papers, research results or reports, analyses, and other textual or visual material and media as one's own work when others prepared them. Some common examples are:
  • Prohibited collaboration: receiving research, programming, data collection, or analytical assistance from others or working with another student on an assignment where such help is not permitted.
  • Copying another student's work or answers on a quiz or examination.
  • Using or having access to books, notes, calculators, cell phones, technology, or other prohibited devices or materials during a quiz or examination.
  • Submitting the same work or major portions thereof to satisfy the requirements of more than one course without permission from the instructors involved.
  • Preprogramming a calculator or other device to contain answers, formulas, or other unauthorized information for use during a quiz or examination.
  • Acquiring a copy of an examination from an unauthorized source before the examination.
  • Having a substitute take an examination in one's place.
  • Submitting a purchased or downloaded term paper or other materials to satisfy a course requirement.
  • Submitting as one's own work a term paper or other assignment prepared, in whole or in part, by someone else.
Fabrication: Fabrication is the invention or falsification of sources, citations, data, or results, and recording or reporting them in any academic exercise. Some examples include the following:
  • Citing a source that does not exist.
  • Making up or falsifying evidence or data or other source materials.
  • Falsifying research papers, reports, or other documents by selectively omitting or altering data that do not support one's conclusions or claimed experimental precision.
  • Falsifying patient or client records.
  • Falsely documenting experiential and/or internship opportunities that did not occur.
  • Providing falsified excuses, documents, or other information to excuse late or missed assignments, or to justify regrading.
Facilitation of Dishonesty: Facilitation of dishonesty is deliberately or carelessly allowing one's work to be used by other students without prior approval of the instructor or otherwise aiding others in committing violations of academic integrity. A student who deliberately facilitates a violation of academic integrity can be subject to the same sanctions as the student who receives the impermissible assistance, even if the facilitator does not benefit personally from the violation. Some examples are:
  • Collaborating before a quiz or examination to develop methods of exchanging information.
  • Knowingly allowing others to copy answers to complete a quiz or examination or assisting others to do so.
  • Distributing an examination from an unauthorized source before the examination.
  • Distributing or selling a term paper to other students.
  • Taking an examination for another student.
  • Allowing other students access to your work in violation of course policies.
Academic Sabotage: Academic sabotage is deliberately impeding the academic progress of others. Some examples are:
  • Intentionally destroying or obstructing another student's work.
  • Stealing or defacing books, journals, or other library or university materials.
  • Altering computer files that contain data, reports, or assignments belonging to another student.
  • Removing posted or reserve material or otherwise preventing other students' access to it.
  • Misrepresenting the contributions of others in the group to give more credit to one particular student for one's gain.
Violation of Research or Professional Ethics: Violations in this category include both violations of the code of ethics specific to a particular profession and violations of more generally applicable ethical requirements for the acquisition, analysis, and reporting of research data and the preparation and submission of scholarly work for publication. Some examples are:
  • Violating a canon of the ethical code of the profession for which a student is preparing.
  • Using unethical or improper means of acquiring, analyzing, or reporting data in a course research project, a senior thesis project, a master's or doctoral research project, grant-funded research, or research submitted for publication.
  • Misuse of grant or institutional funds.
  • Violating professional ethics in performing one's duties as a Teaching Assistant or Graduate Assistant.
Violations Involving Potentially Criminal Activity: Violations in this category include theft, fraud, forgery, or distribution of illicitly obtained materials committed as part of an act of academic dishonesty. Some examples are:
  • Unauthorized acquisition of an examination from a faculty member or electronic files.
  • Selling, buying, or distributing an examination.
  • Forging a change-of-grade form.
  • Falsifying a university transcript.
For additional information, contact RU-info at 848-445-info (4636) or
Comments and corrections to: One Stop Student Services Center.

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