This section describes various ways in which the principles
of academic integrity can be violated. Examples of each type of violation are
given but neither the types of violations nor the lists of examples are
Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the use of another person's words,
ideas, or results without giving that person appropriate credit. To avoid
plagiarism, every direct quotation must be identified by quotation marks or
appropriate indentation and both direct quotation and paraphrasing must be
cited properly according to the accepted format for the particular discipline
or as required by the instructor in a course. Some common examples of
Copying word for word (i.e., quoting directly)
from an oral, printed, or electronic source without proper attribution.
Paraphrasing without proper attribution, i.e.,
presenting in one's own words another person's written words or ideas as if
they were one's own.
Submitting a purchased or downloaded term paper
or other materials to satisfy a course requirement.
- Incorporating into one's work graphs, drawings,
photographs, diagrams, tables, spreadsheets, computer programs, or other
nontextual material from other sources without proper attribution.
Cheating: Cheating is the use of inappropriate or prohibited
materials, information, sources, or aids in any academic exercise. Cheating
also includes submitting papers, research results and reports, analyses, etc.,
as one's own work when they were, in fact, prepared by others. Some common
Receiving research, programming, data collection,
or analytical assistance from others or working with another student on an
assignment where such help is not permitted.
Copying another student's work or answers on a
quiz or examination.
Using or possessing books, notes, calculators,
cell phones, or other prohibited devices or materials during a quiz or
Submitting the same work or major portions
thereof to satisfy the requirements of more than one course without permission
from the instructors involved.
Preprogramming a calculator or other electronic
device to contain answers, formulas, or other unauthorized information for use
during a quiz or examination.
Acquiring a copy of an examination from an
unauthorized source prior to the examination.
Having a substitute take an examination for one.
Having someone else prepare a term paper or
other assignment for one.
Fabrication: Fabrication is the invention or falsification of
sources, citations, data, or results, and recording or reporting them in any
academic exercise. Some examples are:
- Citing a source that does not exist.
- Making up or falsifying evidence or data or
other source materials.
- Falsifying research papers or reports by
selectively omitting or altering data that do not support one's conclusions or
claimed experimental precision.
Facilitation of Dishonesty: Facilitation of dishonesty is
knowingly or negligently allowing one's work to be used by other students
without prior approval of the instructor or otherwise aiding others in
committing violations of academic integrity. A student who intentionally
facilitates a violation of academic integrity can be considered to be as
culpable as the student who receives the impermissible assistance, even if the
facilitator does not benefit personally from the violation. Some examples are:
- Collaborating before a quiz or examination to
develop methods of exchanging information.
- Knowingly allowing others to copy answers to
work on a quiz or examination or assisting others to do so.
- Distributing an examination from an unauthorized
source prior to the examination.
- Distributing or selling a term paper to other
- Taking an examination for another student.
Academic Sabotage: Academic sabotage is deliberately impeding
the academic progress of others. Some examples are:
- Intentionally destroying or obstructing another student's work.
- Stealing or defacing books, journals, or other
library or university materials.
- Altering computer files that contain data,
reports, or assignments belonging to another student.
- Removing posted or reserve material or otherwise
preventing other students' access to it.
Violation of Research or Professional Ethics: Violations in
this category include both violations of the code of ethics specific to a
particular profession and violations of more generally applicable ethical
requirements for the acquisition, analysis, and reporting of research data and
the preparation and submission of scholarly work for publication. Some examples
- Violating a canon of the ethical or professional
code of the profession for which a student is preparing.
- Using unethical or improper means of acquiring, analyzing, or reporting data in a senior thesis project, a master's or doctoral
research project, grant-funded research, or research submitted for publication.
- Misuse of grant or institutional funds.
- Violating professional ethics in performing
one's duties as a teaching assistant or graduate assistant.
Violations Involving Potentially Criminal Activity: Violations
in this category include theft, fraud, forgery, or distribution of ill-gotten
materials committed as part of an act of academic dishonesty. Some examples
- Stealing an examination from a faculty member's or university office or from electronic files.
- Selling or distributing a stolen examination.
- Forging a change-of-grade form.
- Falsifying a university transcript.